Binding duties that every Muslim has to know

Question: What are the 32 fards [essentials, binding duties]?
Every Muslim has to know the 32 fards. They are as follows:

Fundamentals of îmân: 6
Fundamentals of Islam: 5
Essentials of namâz [ritual prayer, salât]: 12
Essentials of ablution [wudû’, abdast]: 4
Essentials of ghusl [ritual bath]: 3
Essentials of tayammum: 2
There are also scholars who say that tayammum has three essentials. In that case, they add up to 33.

Fundamentals of îmân (6)
 To have belief in the existence and Oneness of Allahu ta’âlâ,
2. To have belief in angels,
3. To have belief in the books revealed by Allahu ta’âlâ,
4. To have belief in the prophets sent by Allahu ta’âlâ,
5. To have belief in the Last Day (al-Yawm al-âkhir).
6. To have belief in qadar, that is, khair (good) and sharr (evil) come from Allahu ta’âlâ,

Fundamentals of Islam (5)
To say the Kalimat ash-shahâda,
8. To perform the five daily namâzes when their times come,
To give the zakât of one’s property,
10. To fast every day of the month of Ramadân,
11. (For a person who qualifies) to perform the hajj [major pilgrimage] once in his or her life,

Essentials of namâz (12)
Namâz has 12 fards, 7 of which are preconditions, i.e., they are before beginning namâz. They are also called sharts [conditions].

12. Tahârat [purification] from hadas [the state of being without wudû’ or ghusl],
13. Tahârat from najâsat [substances which Islam prescribes as unclean],
14. Satr-i awrat [covering parts of the body that are called awrat],
15. Istiqbâl-i Qibla [facing the Qibla],
16. Waqt [prescribed time],
17. Niyyat [intention],
18. Takbîr of tahrîma [it is also called takbîr of iftitâh which means to say Allahu akbar when beginning namâz],

B. The fards inside the namâz are five. They are called rukns.

19. Qiyâm [standing],
20. Qirâat [reciting],
21. Ruku’ [bending],
22. Sajda [prostration],
23. Qa’da-i âkhira [last sitting],

Essentials of ablution (4)
 To wash the face,
25. To wash both arms together with the elbows,
26. To apply masah [rubbing one’s wet hands] on one-fourth of the head,
27. To wash the feet together with the ankle bones on both sides,

Essentials of ghusl (3)
To wash the mouth,
29. To wash inside the nose,
30. To wash every part of the body,

Essentials of tayammum (2)
To make niyyat [intention],
32. To rub the two palms on clean soil and to make masah [rubbing] on the face. Then to rub for a second time two hands on the soil and make masah on the right arm first and on the left one second.

According to the scholars who say tayammum has three fards, the last two practices (to make masah on the face and to make masah on the arms) are counted as two different fards.

Question: What are the 54 fards?
Islamic scholars have chosen 54 fards from the fards that every Muslim has to learn, believe and observe. They are as follows:

1. To believe in the Oneness of Allahu ta’âlâ and to never forget Him [that is, to be careful so that everything you do is compatible with Islam],

To eat and drink the things that are halâl,

3. To perform wudû’ [ablution],

To perform the five daily namâzes when their times come,

5. To perform ghusl after haid [menstruation] and nifâs [postnatal bleeding] and in order to extricate yourself from the state of janâbat [impurity caused by sexual intercourse or by the flow of semen],

To believe the fact that Allahu ta’âlâ is the Guarantor of your rizq [sustenance],

7. To wear clean and halâl clothes,

To work by putting your trust (tawakkul) in Allah,

To be satisfied with what you have got,

10. To be thankful to Allahu ta’âlâ for His blessings [to use His blessings in accordance with the command of Islam],

To be content with qadâ and qadar,

To be patient with afflictions [not to be rebellious],

To make tawba [repentance] for your sins,

To perform your acts of worship with ikhlâs [doing all the good deeds and worships for the sake of Allahu ta’âlâ and for the purpose of obtaining His love and approval],

15. To consider the enemies of Islam as enemies,

To know the Qur’ân al-karîm as one of the four sources of Islam,

To prepare yourself for death, that is, to strive to die with îmân by performing the fards and avoiding the harâms,

To love whom Allahu ta’âlâ loves and not to love and to stay away from whom He does not love [it is termed hubb-i fillah and bughd-i fillah],

To do kindness to parents,

(For those who qualify) to spread the commandments of Islam as much as possible,

To visit your relatives who are your mahram and who obey Islam,

Not to commit breach of trust (amânat),

To always abstain from harâms by fearing Allah,

To obey Allah and His Prophet [that is, to do everything compatibly with Islam],

To avoid sins and to perform acts of worship,

Not to rebel against a ruler,

To observe the terrestrial and celestial creatures to take lessons,

To ponder about the existence of Allahu ta’âlâ,

29. To protect your tongue from saying harâm, obscene words.

 To purify your heart from useless things and harmful worldly wishes,

 Not to make fun of anyone,

Not to look at harâm,

To always be faithful to your word,

To protect your ears from listening to obscene words and musical instruments,

To learn commandments and prohibitions of Islam,

To measure and weigh accurately in buying and selling,

To always fear the torment of Allahu ta’âlâ and not to consider yourself to be safe from it,

Not to despair of Allahu ta’âlâ’s Mercy,

To give the zakât of your property to poor Muslims and to help them,

Not to follow the prohibited desires of your nafs,

To give food to a hungry person for the sake of Allah,

To work in order to acquire sufficient rizq (it consists of food, clothes and a house),

43. To give the zakât of your property and to give the ‘ushr of yourcrops,

Not to have sexual intercourse with your wife during a menstrual period or postnatal bleeding,

To purify your heart from sins,

To abstain from being arrogant,

To protect the property of an orphan (yatîm),

 To refrain from states and actions that cause carnal feelings towards young boys,

Not to leave the five daily namâzes to qadâ,

Not to associate partners with Allah,

To avoid fornication,

Not to drink alcoholic beverages,

Not to swear in vain,

54. Not to take away others’ possessions unjustly and by violence, that is, by ill-gotten means and to be in fear of violating others’ rights. [The most important right violation that incurs the severest requital is not to enjoin what is good (amr-i ma’rûf) and not to teach religious information to those who are your relatives and who are under your command. So is the case with bid’at holders who strive to change the creed of Ahl as-Sunnat and defile the religion and faith.]